Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)


Exegetical Theology

First Advisor

William Carr, Jr

Scripture References in this Resource

2 Kings 25:1-4; Isaiah 10:20; Isaiah 2:2-4; Isaiah 37:24; Isaiah 7:3; Isaiah 8:16ff; Jeremiah 40:7, 13; Micah 2:1-13; Micah 3:1-4; Micah 4:11; Micah 4:9-5:14; Micah 6:1-7:7; Micah 7:8-20; Obadiah 11-14


The primary approach of this study is to examine the history of the applicable research and to analyze the various methods (approaches). We have divided selected scholars into two categories (diachronic and synchronic) according to their methods. As we examine each method, this thesis will investigate the authors' treatment of the Hebrew text. Rigorous comparison is difficult, because scholars read some verses as a group, usually following the biblical order of the text, but they do not all group texts in the same way.

As previously stated, synchronic approaches are relatively new; therefore, in this category, fewer scholars will be examined. While studying the scholars' works, we will discover important differences between synchronic and diachronic approaches. These will be noted during the research and synthesized at the end of this thesis.

The following books and commentaries have been selected. Under the diachronic approaches, eight scholars will be analyzed: John M. P. Smith, Paul Haupt, Hans Walter Wolff, James L. Mays, Ehud Ben Zvi, Jan A. Wagenaar" L. M. Luker and D. R.Hillers. These scholars' works are considered authoritative by other scholars in this field." All of them claim that Micah chapters 4-5 does not belong to the eighth century B.C. Under the synchronic approaches, four works by the following scholars will be analyzed: David Hagstrom." Charles Shaw, David N. Freedman and Francis I. Andersen'' and Mignon Jacobs. These scholars insist that Micah 4-5 belong to the eighth century B.C. Even though there is no perfect way to interpret this text, may own study favors a synchronic approach because it values the unity of the text and explains the text best. On the other hand, the purpose of this study is not to defend or make a case for any particular method per se.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.