Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Theology (ThD)


Systematic Theology

First Advisor

Erwin Lueker

Scripture References in this Resource (separated by semi-colons)

Psalm 13:1;


Many of the ancient Stoics never experienced any serious problem concerning the existence of God because they tended to be pantheistic. The orthodox Stoic could put his hand anywhere in the universe and affirm with confidence, "Here is god.” Plato’s “highest good” and Aristotle’s “unmoved mover” are actually monotheistic proofs. Both of these men accepted the traditional gods of Greece but they were searching for a metaphysical ultimate to account for all reality. However when one encounters St. Thomas in the thirteenth century he discovers that these metaphysical ultimates of the ancients resemble the Christian God. St. Thomas calmly presents five classic proofs for the existence of what others called ens realissimum. Four hundred years later Immanuel Kant startled Europe with his scholarly refutation of these hoary arguments. (Actually he was refuting "the badly presented rationalist arguments of Wolff.") Now the problem for consideration is whether or not Kant's withering criticism is valid.

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.