Thomas Winger

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Sacred Theology (STM)


Exegetical Theology

First Advisor

James Voelz

Scripture References in this Resource

Exodus 19:3-8; Isaiah 61:6; Isaiah 66: 21; 1 Peter 2:1-10; Revelation 1:6; Revelation 5:10; Revelation 20:6; Romans 15:16; Exodus 20:2; Numbers 23:12; Deuteronomy 11:32; Genesis 21:12; Genesis 27:8; 13; 4; Exodus 4:1; Exodus 18:19; Exodus 23:21; Jude 20:13; 1 Samuel 8:7; 9; 22; 1 Samuel 12:1; 1 Samuel 15:24; 1 Samuel 19:6; 1 Samuel 25:35; 1 Samuel 28:21; 22; 2 Samuel 12:18; 2 Samuel 13:14; 2 Samuel 19:36; Proverbs 5:13; Jeremiah 35:8; Genesis 30:6; Numbers 21:3; Deuteronomy 1:45; Joshua 10:14; Psalm 130:2; Jude 13:9; 1 Kings 17:2; Deuteronomy 9:23; Isaiah 50:10


For all the emphasis placed on the "priesthood of all believers" as an article of faith, very little critical research has been done into its exegetical, dogmatic, and historical foundations. In his monumental study, John Elliott notes that a detailed exegetical treatment of 1Peter 2 had never before been done in the history of Christianity. 2 Yet he declines any attempt to relate his conclusions to a "dogma" of priesthood. The most extensive historical study, undertaken in two volumes by Cyril Eastwood, attempts to trace the influence of this doctrine in the history of the church, but it fails to speak uniquely of the common priesthood and is based on a superficial exegesis of the biblical texts. 3 These two authors illustrate the problem: there has been a general failure to relate a careful exegetical reading of the scriptural sources to the doctrinal theology of the church. The present study intends, therefore, to treat both sides of the issue, from an analysis of the most recent interpretations of the individual pericopes, to producing a coherent biblical theology of the "common priesthood." As much as possible, these conclusions will also be related to the specific theological problems which it affects.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.