David Moke

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Sacred Theology (STM)


Exegetical Theology

First Advisor

Martin Franzmann

Scripture References in this Resource

Luke 24:34; 1 Corinthians 15:4; Matthew 9:27-31; Isaiah 35:5; Isaiah 42:7; Isaiah 35:5; Genesis 1:3; 6; Genesis 9:27; Exodus 9:9; Exodus 10:21; 1 Chronicles 21:17; Psalm 30:18; Psalm 34:6; Psalm 68:22; 25; Psalm 79:17; Jeremiah 18:22; Isaiah 35:5; Matthew 9:32-34; Genesis 21:19; Genesis 30:22; Exodus 4:12; 15; Numbers 16:32; Numbers 22:18; Deuteronomy 28:12; Micah 3:10; 2 Chronicles 7:15; Isaiah 41:18; Isaiah 50:5; Jeremiah 22:25; Ezekiel 3:27; Ezekiel 29:21; Exodus 37:12-13; Psalm 108:766; 80; Psalm 129:2; Psalm 103:28; Psalm 144:16; Daniel . 7:10


The purpose of this investigation is to examine the use of the passive voice in the Synoptic Gospels. Every verb in the Synoptic Gospels that occurs in the passive voice is examined without exception to determine if it is used to cover or veil the divine name of God or God's divine activity. This idea was suggested by the Index of Subjects of the Blasa-Debrunner-Funk Grammar. Under the subject of the Passive (voice) is listed the use of the passive "to avoid the divine name. 112 It was also noted that Joachim Jeremias in two of his works quite often refers to the passive voice as used to avoid the divine name.3 Martin Albertz makes the statement with regard to the passives used in Luke 24:34 and 1 Corinthians 15:4, “hinter diesen Passiven steht der lebendige Gott.“ Wilhelm Stahlin comments in his study of the passive imperative in the New Testament, "dasz dieser Imperativ Passiv sogar eine zentrale Bedeutung und eine erhebliche Tragweite fflr das Gesamtverstltndnis des Neuen Testaments hat. Gustaf DalJDan makes mention of the fact that, 11Sanetimes the passive voice of the verb is preferred, on the ground that, if the active were used, it would be necessary to name God as the Subject.” These statements and observations make one wonder about the use of the passive voice. This wonderment increases when it is found that there is really no history on the subject in Biblical studies. Except for occasional passing remarks, and these by way of observation, there is no systematic account on the use of the passive voice in the New Testament. As far as it is possible to know, no one has ever written on the subject.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.