Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Theology (Th.M)


Exegetical Theology

First Advisor

William Arndt

Scripture References in this Resource (separated by semi-colons)

Matthew 26:26-30; Mark 14:22-26; Luke 22:18-20; 1 Corinthians 11:23-25; 1 Peter 5:13; John 19:14; Matthew 26:17-18; Mark 14:12-13; Luke 22:7; Mark 16:2; Luke 24:1; Mark 14:17; Luke 22:14; Matthew 26:20; Exodus 12:26; Exodus 13:8; 1 Corinthians 10:16; Matthew 28:19-20;


The words of institution for the Lord's Supper can be taken absolutely literally. The only words which require any interpretation are “body” and “blood." These can be interpreted only in the light of the concept of "communion.” On the basis of the text and in harmony with the Lutheran confessions this leads to three points, often called the Shibboleths of the doctrine.

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.