Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Exegetical Theology

First Advisor

Mark Seifrid

Scripture References in this Resource

2 Corinthians 9:8; 2 Corinthians 8:1-6; 2 Corinthians 8:7-8; 2 Corinthians 8:9; 2 Corinthians 8:10-12; 2 Corinthians 8:13-15; Exodus 16:18; 2 Corinthians 8:16-23; 2 Corinthians 8:24; 2 Corinthians 9:1-5; 2 Corinthians 9:6-15; 2 Corinthians 6:11; 2 Corinthians 7:3; Acts 24:17-18; Romans 15:25-33; 1 Corinthians 16:1-4; Galatians 2:10; Isaiah 2:2-4; Micah 4:1-3; Romans 10:19; Romans 11:11-16


Whiteford, Ruth A. “Friendship and Gift in 2 Corinthians 8–9: Social Relations and Conventions in the Jerusalem Collection.” Ph.D. diss., Concordia Seminary, 2018. 197 pp.

The collection in 2 Corinthians 8–9 not only presents the opportunity for a transfer of economic resources, but also signifies a particular kind of social relationship between the Christians in Corinth and Jerusalem. While the Corinthians interpreted prospective transactions through the lens of patronage and therefore as an opportunity to gain status, Paul’s sustained use of the ancient Greco-Roman friendship topos in his instructions reveals his conviction that all members of the ἐκκλησία are equal, ideal friends on the basis of God’s gifts of χάρις and δικαιοσύνη. An assessment of status and its role in the different social relationships in the Hellenistic world, especially in Corinth, and an examination of Hellenistic friendship first set the foundation for a comprehensive examination of Paul’s adaptation and use of the topos throughout 2 Cor 8–9. This dissertation then concludes with an evaluation of how friendship provides an organizing framework for individual and corporate Christian flourishing under the gospel.

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.