Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Systematic Theology

First Advisor

Norman Nagel

Scripture References in this Resource

Galatians 3:14; Titus 3:5-8; Mark 16:16; Romans 3:4


The general topic for this work is the relation of faith and the means of grace in the bestowal of salvation. The Lutheran Church from her beginning has believed, confessed and taught that we are saved by grace through faith alone. This is stated briefly in the Augsburg Confession, Article IV.

Our churches also teach that men cannot be justified before God by their own strength, merits, or works but are freely justified for Christ's sake through faith 2 when they believe that they are received into favor and that their sins are forgiven on account of Christ, who by his death made satisfaction for our sins. 3 This faith God imputes for righteousness in his sight (Rom. 3-4).

She has also confessed that God delivers this salvation through the external means of grace. As the Augsburg Confession Article V states:1 In order that we may obtain this faith, the ministry of teaching the Gospel and administering the sacraments was instituted. 2 For through the Word and the sacraments, as through instruments, the Holy Spirit is given, and the Holy Spirit produces faith, where and when it pleases God, in those who hear the Gospel. 3 That is to say, it is not on account of our own merits but on account of Christ that God justifies those who believe that they are received into favor for Christ's sake. Gal. 3:14,"That we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith." 4 Our churches condemn the Anabaptists and others who think that the Holy Spirit comes to men without the external Word, through their own preparations and works.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.