Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Divinity (M.Div)


Historical Theology

First Advisor

Ralph Bohlmann


This paper deals with troubles experienced by the Missouri Synod in general, but its answer to the major problems are based almost exclusively on the writings of Professor Theodore Conrad Graebner. Professor Graebner was on the faculty at Concordia Seminary in St. Louis, Missouri. In 1914 he assumed the role as co-editor of the Lutheran Witness, the official English periodical of the Missouri Synod. Professor Graebner was probably the most important leader of the Missouri Synod who attempted to prove its loyalty during this time. He also became the advisor, for many pastors who did not know what to do in certain situations because their loyalty was questioned. There will be several times in this paper where it is impossible to distinguish between German Lutherans and Missouri Synod Lutherans, but attempts to make this distinction are not always possible. This paper has also limited itself to the English sources. This seemed to be the only fruitful way to deal with the mass of sources available in such a short span of time.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.