Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Ministry (DMin)


Systematic Theology

First Advisor

David Maxwell

Scripture References in this Resource

Galatians 3:6; Galatians 4:3–4; Ephesians 2:3; Romans 6:23; James 2:10; Philippians 3:9; Matthew 5:18; Isaiah 53:3–5; Romans 13:9; Ephesians 1:10; Genesis 1:27


That will conclude the discussion on theologians and their views of the active obedience of Christ. Next, we will look back to the Reformation. Georg Karg questions the imputation of Christ’s active obedience. Through a historical lens, there could be merit to what Karg argues. This will lead to the problem with which this thesis is concerned: Is the active obedience of Christ necessary? Some of the theologians discussed below suggest that the active obedience of Christ is something that can be discarded from the atonement with no major consequences (or even perhaps that removing it strengthens the theology of justification). If Christ’s active obedience is imputed to Christians in justification, then this means that an active righteousness is part of justification. This calls into question the entire two kinds of righteousness distinction. Is the active obedience of Christ merely a mis-categorization of the two kinds of righteous, namely, that Christ’s active obedience under the Law belongs in the realm coram mundo? These questions will be dealt with in the chapters below.

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.