Concordia Theological Monthly

Publication Date


Document Type



hardness of heart, new testament, Yahweh, israel, hardheartedness, pharaoh

Submission Type

Bible Study; Lecture; Sermon Prep


Lack of ready acceptance of the Gospel by all people was a perplexing problem, especially so for the early church. At stake were not only the credentials of Jesus as the Christ but also the authority of the apostolic message. If God's own people rejected Jesus, could He still be considered a viable candidate for Israel's highest office? And if the church's heralds were the instruments of proclamation of the Word of salvation, why was response to the message so spotty and relatively fruitless? Earnest assessment of the problem led early theologians to their customary quarry, the Old Testament, for extraction of material our of which they shaped answers appropriate to varying requirement.


Religious Thought, Theology and Philosophy of Religion

Scripture References in this Resource (separated by semi-colons)

Exodus 4:11; Proverbs 20:12; Deuteronomy 5:24; Exodus 16:6-7; Exodus 4:30-31; Exodus 14:31; Exodus 4:21-23; Exodus 19:4-5; Deuteronomy 4:12-14; Joshua 23:1-16; Exodus 2:24; Deuteronomy 5:28; Zechariah 7:11-13; Isaiah 37:17; Deuteronomy 4:28;

Submission Cost


Submission Audience

Laity; Ministers; Scholars