Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Theology (ThD)


Exegetical Theology

First Advisor

Erich Kiehl

Scripture References in this Resource (separated by semi-colons)

Romans 1:16; 1 Chronicles 16:12; 1 Kings 13:1-5; Acts 14:3; Acts 15:12; Acts 2:19; Acts 2:22; Acts 2:43; Acts 4:30; Acts 5:12; Acts 6:8; Exodus 4:21; Isaiah 20:3; Joel 2:30; John 10:18; John 17:2; John 4:48; John 5:27; Luke 5:24; Mark 11:28-29, 33; Mark 13:22; Mark 2:10; Matthew 21:23-24, 27; Matthew 24:24; Matthew 28:18; Matthew 9:6; Psalm 105:5;


In a previous work we have questioned such conclusions and argued instead that it is between superstition and skepticism where one meets the world view of most in the first century and further that reported miracle phenomena were hardly "common" when consideration is limited to first-century material.

With this study, we complement our previous work by positing that miracles are essential to the Gospel. A definition of "miracles" would be unnecessary were it not for their essential Gospel traditions (oral and written narratives) and to the Gospel itself (δ ́uναμις γ ̀αρ θεοῦ ’εστιν ε’ις σωτηρ́iαν--Rom.1:16). Miracles are not peripheral.

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.