Date of Award


Document Type

Seminar Paper

Degree Name

Master of Sacred Theology (STM)


Historical Theology

Scripture References in this Resource (separated by semi-colons)

Romans 6:3; Galatians 3:27;


The following is a study of the historical usage of single and triple immersion / sprinkling practices through the first twelve centuries A.D. The questions at hand are: 1) Has either practice historically been predominant 2) What doctrine is informing each practice? 3) Is there a specific text of Scripture informing each practice? 4) How does this study resource us in our current practice?

The Latin expression, "Lex orandi, lex credendi" has for centuries encapsulated the truth that liturgical practice serves a looking glass into the worshiper's theology. It is the purpose of this study to use baptismal liturgies as such a looking glass, so that the doctrines informing these two practices may be extolled rather than overlooked. There is a constant danger among liturgical churches to overlook what doctrine a practice is extolling and to miss the vitality and dynamic nature of the liturgy. The purpose of this study is to bring into clarity the tradition, theology, and vitality of what is extolled in ones and threes in Holy Baptism's liturgy.

The liturgies included in this study are for the most part those compiled in E.C. Whitaker's, Documents of the Baptismal Liturgy. This work includes a comprehensive collection of liturgical documents on baptism through the first nine centuries A.D. The compilation covers both the Eastern and Western Church. In addition to Whitaker's collection of liturgies several conciliar documents from the Eastern and Western Church are included in the study.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.