"The Old Evil Foe Now Means Deadly Woe": The Works of the Devil in the Theology Of Martin Luther


Esko Murto

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Sacred Theology (STM)


Systematic Theology

First Advisor

Roland F. Ziegler


The purpose of this research is to find out how Martin Luther understood the works of the Devil. The focus is not on speculative demonology, the nature of personal evil or the metaphysical status of Satan. The question seeking its answer in this research concerns the works of the Devil; what the Devil does, instead of what he is. While the question concerning the essence of Satan is an interesting one, it nevertheless would miss the mark given the sources. For Luther, the Devil was not a theological enigma to be uncovered or a dilemma to be resolved. Satan was a personal and highly active, dangerous spiritual being. Instead of speculation, the topic of the Devil is approached through experience gained through Christian living. Following Luther's viewpoint regarding the world of demonic, this work embarks on a journey to understand what place the Devil held in Luther's theological thinking.


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