Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Sacred Theology (STM)


Systematic Theology

First Advisor

Thomas Manteufel

Scripture References in this Resource

Numbers 21:14; 1 Corinthians 1:5-7; 1 Corinthians 15:1-4; 1 John 2:18, 22; 1 John 4:3; 2 Corinthians 4:7-18; 2 John 1:7; 2 Thessalonians 2:1-1; 2 Timothy 3:16; Acts 15:10, 11; Acts 26:22; Deuteronomy 4:2; Ephesians 2:20; Galatians 3:16; Genesis 22:18; James 2:10; John 10:35; Jude 14-16; Matthew 5:18, 19; Psalm 90:10; Revelation 22:19; Romans 12:7


We now move to the specific situation of the Missouri Synod in the nineteenth century. They will not always use terms in the same manner as today's LCMS. The importance of the material lies in its being translated into English for the first time. The reader will gain a healthy respect for the strengths of "Old Missouri" and also an understanding of its weaknesses. Lutheranism is not an "easy" sort of theology, either with regard to innovation or repristination. Yet the capacity of the early Missouri Synod to remain "on message" in what was already a markedly pluralistic society in the United States cannot be ignored. The two foci that emerge are the doctrines of justification and Scripture, both of which are essential for salvation.

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.