Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Divinity (M.Div)


Historical Theology

First Advisor

Edward Schroeder

Scripture References in this Resource (separated by semi-colons)

Matthew 5:38-42; Galatians 2:14;


In one section of his book, The Nature and Destiny of Man, Reinhold Niebuhr constructs a critique of the Lutheran Reformation, and particularly of Martin Luther's theology as the formative theoretical base of Lutheran Reformation theology. ‘One of Niebuhr's specific charges was that the Lutheran Reformation was explicitly defeatist when confronting the problems of realizing justice in the collective life of man. Niebuhr lays a great deal of the blame for this “Lutheran defeatism" on Luther's formulation of the two kingdom doctrine and his application of it to legitimize the suppression by the government of the peasant revolt of 1525.

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.