Concordia Theological Monthly

Publication Date


Document Type



women, wife, husband, christian, athenian, authority

Submission Type

Bible Study; Lecture; Sermon Prep


The position of women in most heathen nations and tribes was and is one of almost unbelievable degradation and unspeakable misery. In most cases, even among the more enlightened nations of antiquity, she was nothing more than a mere chattel. Under the old Roman law, for example, a husband had absolute power of life and death over his wife and absolute control of her property. (Brace, Gesta. Christi, 20.) In Athens, during the age of the orators, the woman was obliged to accept without questioning a position distinctly subordinate to the men, both intellectually and socially. "The life of the Athenian woman was not only exceedingly circumscribed and isolated, but she was actually treated throughout her life as a minor and under constant tutelage, being subject, at various times, to the authority of her father, brother, grandfather, husband, son, or guardian; she had practically no authority, except in the sphere of domestic economy." (Savage, The .Athenian Family, 25.) As for the present-day savage tribes of Africa, Australia, South America, and elsewhere, even the most superficial acquaintance with the history and progress of missions will afford a view of a serfdom and slavery on the part of women which in many instances place her below the level of beasts in her intellectual and social sphere. In only a few of the Teutonic and Scandinavian tribes was woman given a position of honor, as the consort and helpmate of man. (Cf. Hastings, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, sub vocibus "Emancipation," "Marriage," etc.)


Religious Thought, Theology and Philosophy of Religion

Scripture References in this Resource (separated by semi-colons)

Genesis 1:27-28; Genesis 9:18; Genesis 3:16; John 16:21; 1 Timothy 2:13-14; Deuteronomy 24:1-4; Numbers 5:11-31; Deuteronomy 21:10-14; Deuteronomy 21:15-17; Matthew 19:4-5; Proverbs 5:18-20; Proverbs 31:10-31; Psalm 68:6; Ruth 4:18; 1 Timothy 5:3 ff; Genesis 20:18; 1 Timothy 5:14; Ephesians 5:22-24; Titus 2:4-5; 1 Corinthians 11:3:8-9; 1 Corinthians 14:34-35; 1 Timothy 2:11. 12; Exodus 38:8; 1 Samuel 2:22; Exodus 35:25-26; Luke 8:2-3; Matthew 28:1ff; Mark 16:1ff; Luke 24:1-6; Luke 24:22-23; John 20:1-2:11-18; 1 Timothy 3:11; Psalm 119:9; Psalm 128:3-4; 2 Timothy 4:19; 1 Corinthians .16:19; Acts 18:24-28; Romans .16:6; Philippians 4:2-3; Acts 16:15-40; Acts 12:12; 2 Timothy 4:21; Proverbs 31:10-31; Proverbs 12:4; Proverbs 14:1; Proverbs 18:3; Proverbs 21:19-10; 1 Timothy . 5:14; 1 Peter . 3:1; Ephesians 5:22; Acts 9:36-39;

Submission Cost


Submission Audience

Laity; Ministers; Scholars