Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Divinity (B.Div)


Systematic Theology

First Advisor

Louis Sieck

Scripture References in this Resource (separated by semi-colons)

Genesis 3:15; Romans 4:5; Galatians 2:16; Ephesians 2:8; Romans 1:17; Romans 3:24; Romans 4:3ff; Galatians 3:11; Jeremiah 7:22-23; Psalm 50:13, 15; Psalm 40:6; Psalm 4:5; Romans 4:9; Luke 17:10; Galatians 5:6; Romans 3:28; Galatians 5:4; Ephesians 2:9; Hebrews 11:6; Matthew 18:6; Mark 9:42; Acts 8:36-37; 1 Corinthians 11:27-29; Psalm 19:12;


Opposed to the sola fide is the doctrine of ex opere operato, i.e., that the sacraments mechanically confer grace upon all who receive them. Faith is not necessary to receive this grace, but the mere outward ceremony effects it mechanically for all those who do not place an obstacle in the way.

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.